spinal interneurons

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Spinal Interneurons in Sensorimotor Integration
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Pages : 271 pages
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Even though spinal cord research has expanded enormously during the past decades, we still lack a precise understanding of how spinal interneuron networks perfectly integrate sensory feedback with motor control, and how these neuron circuits give rise to specific functions. The present study thus has three basic aims: (1) to investigate propriospinal interneurons connecting rostral and caudal lumbar spinal cord in the rat; (2) to investigate input properties of identified spinal interneurons interposed in different pathways; (3) to investigate cholinergic terminals in the ventral horn of adult rat and cat. There was no evidence to support the presence of vesicular glutamate transporters in motoneuron axon terminals of either species. In addition, there was no obvious relationship between motoneuron terminals and R2 subunit of the AMPA receptor (GluR2). However, a population of cholinergic terminals in lamina VII, which did not originate from motoneurons, was found to be immunoreactive for VGLUT2 and formed appositions with GluR2 subunits. These terminals were smaller than motoneuron terminals and, unlike them, formed no relationship with Renshaw cells. The evidence suggests that glutamate does not act as a cotransmitter with acetylcholine at central synapses of motoneurons in the adult cat and rat. However, glutamate is present in a population of cholinergic terminals which probably originate from interneurons where its action is via an AMPA receptor. In conclusion, the present studies add to the understanding of the organization of neuronal networks involved in sensorimotor integration. Propriospinal interneurons located within the lumbar segments have extensive intra-segmental projections to motor nuclei. First order interneurons interposed in reflex pathways and descending pathways receive a significantly different pattern of inputs. A similar proportion of monosynaptic excitatory input from primary afferents has been found in both excitatory and inhibitory interneurons and these two types of cells are subject to presynaptic inhibitory control of this input.

Spinal Interneurons in Sensorimotor Integration

Even though spinal cord research has expanded enormously during the past decades, we still lack a precise understanding of how spinal interneuron networks perfectly integrate sensory feedback with motor control, and how these neuron circuits give rise to specific functions. The present study thus has three basic aims: (1) to investigate

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Spinal Interneurons

Spinal Interneurons: Plasticity after Spinal Cord Injury provides neuroscientists, clinicians and trainees a reference book exclusively concentrating on spinal interneurons and the techniques and experiments employed to identify and study these cells as part of normal, diseased and injured neural circuits. In addition, the book highlights the therapeutic potential of

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Lineage Tracing of Ipsilateral Ventral Spinal Interneurons Delineates a Sensorimotor Connectivity Map Based on Developmental Origin and Spatial Distribution

Movement is a fundamental behavior that is generated and patterned by premotor neural networks that reside in the ventral spinal cord of vertebrates. Despite ongoing investigations in multiple animal models, including humans, non-human primates, cats and rodents, identifying the functional neuron cell types that shape various motor tasks has proved

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Lumbar Spinal Interneuron Activity as it Relates to Rhythmic Motor Output in the Adult  Spinal  Air stepping Cat

Interneurons of the lumbar spinal cord inherently maintain and modulate stepping. In order to advance therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury, it is necessary to clearly understand both the localized locomotor spinal circuitry as well as the activation patterns within the spinal cord. In this study, the structural organization of

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Pathology of Spinal Interneurons in Motor Neuron Disease

Download or read online Pathology of Spinal Interneurons in Motor Neuron Disease written by Benjamin Stephens,University of London (GB), published by Unknown which was released on 2001. Get Pathology of Spinal Interneurons in Motor Neuron Disease Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle.

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Descending influences on responses of lumbar spinal cord interneurons to adequate skin stimulation in chronically prepared cats

Download or read online Descending influences on responses of lumbar spinal cord interneurons to adequate skin stimulation in chronically prepared cats written by Nathaniel Gilbert Pitts, published by Unknown which was released on 1975. Get Descending influences on responses of lumbar spinal cord interneurons to adequate skin stimulation in chronically prepared

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Deconstructing Spinal Interneurons  One Cell Type at a Time

By using our Sparse Bayesian approach, we showed that V1 interneurons, a major inhibitory population that controls motor output, fractionate into diverse subsets on the basis of the expression of nineteen transcription factors. Transcriptionally defined subsets exhibit highly structured spatial distributions with mediolateral and dorsoventral positional biases. These distinctions in

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Transcriptional Code of Differentiation  Wiring and Activity of Spinal Interneurons

Download or read online Transcriptional Code of Differentiation Wiring and Activity of Spinal Interneurons written by Yoav Hadas, published by Unknown which was released on 2013. Get Transcriptional Code of Differentiation Wiring and Activity of Spinal Interneurons Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle.

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The Neuroplastic and Therapeutic Potential of Interneurons in the Injured Spinal Cord

There is a growing appreciation for spontaneous anatomical and functional changes, or neuroplasticity, after spinal cord injury. One key element of neuroplasticity recently identified are spinal interneurons. The work presented in this thesis identifies a specific population of spinal interneurons that contribute to respiratory plasticity -- the excitatory, ipsilaterally projecting

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The Specification of Spinal Interneuron Identity by Evx1

Download or read online The Specification of Spinal Interneuron Identity by Evx1 written by Laura Moran Rivard, published by Unknown which was released on 2001. Get The Specification of Spinal Interneuron Identity by Evx1 Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle.

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Evidence for Programmed Cell Death in the Spinal Interneurons of the Chick Embryo

Download or read online Evidence for Programmed Cell Death in the Spinal Interneurons of the Chick Embryo written by Laura Willard Sherrill,Guilford College, published by Unknown which was released on 2007. Get Evidence for Programmed Cell Death in the Spinal Interneurons of the Chick Embryo Books now! Available in PDF,

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The Role of Genetically Defined Lamina VII Spinal Interneurons in Generating the Locomotor Rhythm

Download or read online The Role of Genetically Defined Lamina VII Spinal Interneurons in Generating the Locomotor Rhythm written by Jason Dyck, published by Unknown which was released on 2011. Get The Role of Genetically Defined Lamina VII Spinal Interneurons in Generating the Locomotor Rhythm Books now! Available in PDF, ePub

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Movement Control

This volume addresses issues about how the central nervous system controls movement.

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Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord

Traumatic injuries of the spinal cord continue to be the most common cause of permanent paralysis in young adults in the United States. New information has emerged on the response of spinal neurons to injury of either the spinal cord or peripheral nerves demonstrating that dendrites of injured motoneurons take

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The Central Nervous System

Providing clear, well-illustrated descriptions of brain structures in light of their functions, this cohesive and well-established textbook fosters understanding of the intimate relationship between the structure and function of the nervous system. Its focus on the integration of basic sciences with their clinical applications makes the book particularly well-suited for

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