netosis

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NETosis  At the Intersection of Cell Biology  Microbiology  and Immunology
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Publisher : Frontiers E-books
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ISBN 10 : 2889191583
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NETosis is a unique form of cell death that is characterized by the release of decondensed chromatin and granular contents to the extracellular space. The initial observation of NETosis placed the process within the context of the innate immune response to infections. Neutrophils, the most numerous leukocytes that arrive quickly at the site of an infection, were the first cell type shown to undergo extracellular trap formation. However, subsequent studies showed that other granulocytes are also capable of releasing nuclear chromatin following stimulation. The extracellular chromatin acts to immobilize microbes and prevent their dispersal in the host. Bacterial breakdown products and inflammatory stimuli induce NETosis and the release of NETs requires enzyme activities. Histones in NET chromatin become modified by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and cleaved at specific sites by proteases. NETs serve for attachment of bactericidal enzymes including myeloperoxidase, leukocyte proteases, and the cathelicidin LL-37. While the benefit of NETs in an infection appears clear, NETs also figure prominently at the center of various pathologic states. Therefore, it is important for NETs to be efficiently cleared; else digestive enzymes may gain access to tissues where inflammation takes place. Persistent NET exposure at sites of inflammation may lead to a further complication: NET antigens may provoke acquired immune responses and, over time, could initiate autoimmune reactions. Recent studies identified aberrant NET synthesis and/or clearance in inflammatory/autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis, ANCA-positive vasculitis, gout and Felty’s syndrome. In the case of SLE, for example, it appears that LL-37 exposed in the NETs may be a significant trigger of type I Interferon responses in this disease. Recent evidence also implicates aberrant NET formation in the development of endothelial damage, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. NETosis is thus of interest to researchers who investigate innate immune responses, host-pathogen interactions, chronic inflammatory disorders, cell and vascular biology, biochemistry, and autoimmunity. As we approach the 10-year-anniversary of the initial discovery of NETosis, it is useful and timely to review the so far identified mechanisms and pathways of NET formation, their role in bacterial and fungal defense and their putative importance as inducers of autoimmune responses. We look forward to a rich and rigorous discussion of these and related issues that benefit from interdisciplinary approaches, collaborations and exciting discoveries.

NETosis  At the Intersection of Cell Biology  Microbiology  and Immunology

NETosis is a unique form of cell death that is characterized by the release of decondensed chromatin and granular contents to the extracellular space. The initial observation of NETosis placed the process within the context of the innate immune response to infections. Neutrophils, the most numerous leukocytes that arrive quickly

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NETosis

NETosis: Immunity, Pathogenesis and Therapeutics takes a focused approach to the clinical aspects of NETosis and drug development, bringing critical findings. Chapters introduce NETosis, consider mechanisms and antimicrobial strategies regulating NETosis, examine NETosis in neonates, explore the role of NETosis in autoimmunity, delve into NETosis and other diseases, and present

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NETosis 2  The Excitement Continues

NETosis, a form of cell death that manifests by the release of decondensed chromatin to the extracellular space, provides valuable insights into mechanisms and consequences of cellular demise. Because extracellular chromatin can immobilize microbes, the extended nucleohistone network was called a neutrophil extracellular trap (NET), and the process of chromatin

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Role of Neutrophils in Disease Pathogenesis

This book highlights the important role of neutrophils in health as well as in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Section 1 provides a general background information regarding the mechanisms and various triggers of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation and their role in various infectious and noninfectious diseases (such as postinjury inflammation).

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Damage Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases

This book presents current understanding of the importance of modern immunology in the etiopathogenesis of human diseases and explores how this understanding is impacting on diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prophylaxis. As the core of modern immunology, the “danger/injury model” is introduced and addressed throughout the book. Volume I of

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Physical Phenotyping of Neutrophil NETosis Using Fluorescence Imaging Deformability Cytometry

The cell mechanical phenotype is a useful measure to understand cell identity and state. Cell mechanical properties such as deformability can provide an understanding of cellular processes or intracellular composition without direct labeling. The cell nucleus is a significant component of the cell and it is useful to understand how

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Apoptosis and Beyond  2 Volume Set

These volumes teach readers to think beyond apoptosis and describes all of the known processes that cells can undergo which result in cell death This two-volume source on how cells dies is the first, comprehensive collection to cover all of the known processes that cells undergo when they die. It

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The Role of Galectin 3 mediated NETosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Download or read online The Role of Galectin 3 mediated NETosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus written by 陳璟儀, published by Unknown which was released on 2017. Get The Role of Galectin 3 mediated NETosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle.

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On the Role of Neutrophils and NETosis in Acute Pancreatitis

Download or read online On the Role of Neutrophils and NETosis in Acute Pancreatitis written by Anonim, published by Unknown which was released on 2020. Get On the Role of Neutrophils and NETosis in Acute Pancreatitis Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle.

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Role of Neutrophils in Inflammatory Diseases

Download or read online Role of Neutrophils in Inflammatory Diseases written by Laurent Reber,Thomas Marichal,Onur Boyman, published by Frontiers Media SA which was released on 2021-01-20. Get Role of Neutrophils in Inflammatory Diseases Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle.

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Healthy and Beauty  Finding of current life science experiment for human sustainability

Abstract from the year 2019 in the subject Medicine - Public Health, grade: 10.0, , language: English, abstract: This work is a collection of studies concerning human sustainability. We were proud for having Postgrad Colloquium 2019, Faculty of Health Sciences Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). It was held on 30th April 2019 at Academic Building

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Cell Biology by the Numbers

A Top 25 CHOICE 2016 Title, and recipient of the CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title (OAT) Award. How much energy is released in ATP hydrolysis? How many mRNAs are in a cell? How genetically similar are two random people? What is faster, transcription or translation?Cell Biology by the Numbers explores these questions

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Fibrinolysis and Thrombolysis

This book familiarizes the reader with some recent trends in the theory and practice of thrombolysis. It covers the field of fibrinolysis from the standpoint of basic scientists and clinicians and delivers the state-of-the-art information on the biochemistry and pharmacology of fibrinolysis, as well as related novel methodological and diagnostic

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Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease

Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease focuses on the pathophysiology of common cardiovascular disease in the context of its underlying mechanisms and molecular biology. This book has been developed from the editors' experiences teaching an advanced cardiovascular pathology course for PhD trainees in the biomedical sciences, and trainees in

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Cell Death

This book is a collection of selected and relevant research, concerning the developments within the Cell Death field of study. Each contribution comes as a separate chapter complete in itself but directly related to the books topics and objectives. The target audience comprises scholars and specialists in the field.

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