This book examines the mathematical difficulties in typical and atypical populations. It discusses the behavioural, educational and neuropsychological characteristics of people with mathematical difficulties, and educational interventions to prevent, diagnose, treat or ameliorate such difficulties. The book brings together studies from different disciplines, including developmental psychology, neuroscience and education, and includes perspectives from practicing teachers. The book is divided into three major sections. The first includes chapters about the nature and characteristics of mathematical difficulties in the population as a whole, in relation to both psychology and education. The second deals with mathematical difficulties in children with other problems such as specific language impairment and dyslexia. The third discusses methods of interventions aimed at preventing, treating or ameliorating mathematical difficulties, and will include discussions of assessment and diagnosis.