genetics and the behavior of domestic animals

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
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Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 0128059923
Pages : 496 pages
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The partnership between humans and domestic animals is natural. The human brain is hard-wired to emotionally respond to animals. Beginning with the domestication of wolves, this chapter covers the process of domestication and reviews the early work of behaviorists and ethologists who refused to accept emotional states in animals. Modern behavior research employs methods developed by behaviorists and ethologists combined with neuroscience and genetics. Emotional systems in the brain drive behavior. Confusion between different emotional systems may explain conflicting findings in the behavior literature. Behavior in an open-field test may be motivated either by fear, separation distress, or novelty seeking. Each emotion is controlled by separate subcorticol systems. A novel open-field arena can frighten a prey species, but it may activate seeking in a predator. Genetics affects the strength of fear, novelty seeking, and separation distress. Behavior is shaped by a complex interaction between genetics and experience.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

The partnership between humans and domestic animals is natural. The human brain is hard-wired to emotionally respond to animals. Beginning with the domestication of wolves, this chapter covers the process of domestication and reviews the early work of behaviorists and ethologists who refused to accept emotional states in animals. Modern

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

The domestic dog has many phenotypic and behavioral forms. In this chapter we describe five different kinds of dogs and how each has been derived. We trace the background village dog adapting to the age of agriculture, with the coincident transformation of human behavior to permanent settlement. Over centuries, this

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Research in behavioral genetics is important for pig welfare. Consequences of the ongoing selection for high production on pigs’ behavior need to be studied, as well as possibilities to select directly for changed behavior. The Farm Animal Welfare Council’s definition of welfare is based on five freedoms related to

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Over-selection for production traits has caused animal welfare problems such as feather pecking in hens, tail biting in pigs, and overly aggressive animals. In dogs, over-selection for appearance traits has caused neurological problems such as deafness. Both feather pecking and tail biting may be displaced foraging behaviors, because these behaviors

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Behavior is shaped by both genetics and experience--nature and nurture. This book synthesizes research from behavioral genetics and animal and veterinary science, bridging the gap between these fields. The objective is to show that principles of behavioral genetics have practical applications to agricultural and companion animals. The continuing domestication of

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

In these classic experiments, quail chicks were selectively bred for the behavioral traits of fear and social reinstatement. Over a period of 20 generations, four separate genetic lines were created. They were high and low fear and high and low social re-instatement. The duration of tonic immobility was used as a

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Since the late 1990s there has been a substantial increase in horse behavior genetics research. This chapter reviews recent work in molecular genetics, pre-and postnatal effects on behavior, the relationship between hair whorls and temperament, and lateralization in the nervous system. These factors are critical to understanding individual differences. Advancements

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Different tests have been developed for evaluating the temperament of cattle, pigs, and sheep and some studies appear to have conflicting results. This may be due to confusion between the basic emotional systems of fear and separation distress (panic). Methods used for temperament tests can alter results such as how

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

In this chapter, we begin by defining domestication as a genetic process, whereby animals change phenotypically and genetically as a response to living under human supervision. This has caused a convergent set of phenotypic modifications across numerous different species, through a combination of relaxed natural selection, increased human selection, and

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Dog domestication involved long-term genetic selection for behavior. The genetics-centered view of domestication is supported by experimental selection of farm-foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that began in the 1950s. Selection of foxes, separately, for tame and for aggressive behavior, has yielded two strains with markedly different, genetically determined behavioral phenotypes. Tame-strain foxes

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

This chapter provides an overview of the current behavioral and cognitive aspects of emotions in animals and explore the impacts of emotional experiences on the animal's adaptation to its current challenging circumstances. There is evidence that animal welfare results from the animal's perception of its environment and its background. The

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

This chapter describes the reproductive and maternal behaviors of different livestock species (cattle, horses, pigs, goats, and water buffalo) with an emphasis on those traits which are genetically conserved. All of the species discussed are polygynous and promiscuous, and females undergo estrous cycles in which males are mainly attracted by

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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Many behaviors in poultry can be modified by genetic selection. Selection of laying hens for maximum egg production had the unfortunate side effect of increased rates of beak inflicted damage on other birds. Selective breeding has eliminated broodiness and has either increased or decreased other behaviors, such as hysteria, fearfulness,

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Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists

Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists, Sixth Edition is a fully updated revision of this popular, classic text offering a thorough understanding of the normal behavior of domestic animals. Provides a complete understanding of the normal behavior of domestic animals Covers dogs, cats, horses, pigs, sheep, cattle, and

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Domestic Animals  b Genetics and Behavior

Download or read online Domestic Animals b Genetics and Behavior written by Carmichael J.A Wallace, published by Unknown which was released on 1998. Get Domestic Animals b Genetics and Behavior Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle.

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