Neural plasticity is a unique and adaptive feature of nervous system, which allows neurons to reorganize their interactions in response to a stimulation (intrinsic or extrinsic) to maintain their function. For these reasons, epigenetics emerges as a potential field for developing strategies to modulate changes in pathological situation because extrinsic factors and pharmacological tools can modify neural functioning in organisms during their life. Diet, exercise, environmental aspects, stressors or drugs are available to alter those mechanisms. Epigenetic involves certain molecular signaling pathways, as DNA methylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation, and the emerging non-coding small RNA, mainly microRNA, as a commanders of a number of translation processes. As most of molecular nervous cell alterations, epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in neural plasticity. This eBook collects the burgeoning advances in epigenetic mechanisms, focusing on new insights into cellular and molecular neurobiological mechanisms that underlie brain functioning in health and pathological conditions. Contributions go from basic cellular mechanism to therapeutic opportunities to tackle the challenges on nervous central system development and neurodegeneration.