domino effects in the process industries

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries
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Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
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ISBN 10 : 9780444543233
Pages : 372 pages
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The topic concerns the so-called 'domino effects' or accidents with escalation effects within the chemical industry. Domino effects can be defined in a number of ways. For a list of domino effect definitions, see Reniers' article in the Journal of Hazardous Materials 177 (2010). The most widely used definition is that of Delvosalle (1998): "A domino effect is a cascade of accidents (domino events) in which the consequences of a previous accident are increased by the following one(s), spatially as well as temporally, leading to a major accident.". To the best of the authors' knowledge, no book is currently available that specifically deals with the important topic of preventing domino effects in the chemical and process industries. However, a large amount of academic research has been carried out since the EU Seveso-II Directive entered into force (1996), requiring that such low frequency/high consequence events are considered in companies' safety reports (art. 8). Academic interest is evident by the considerable amount of scientific papers on the subject published since 1996. The topic has thus gained importance within the academic world. With respect to industry, domino effects and their prevention are mainly considered important due to the legislative requirements, that goes beyond the capabilities of simplified domino assessment methods used before the year 2000. Since the 2003 Amendment of the Seveso-II Directive, imposing even more strict regulations on the reporting of domino scenarios and on the identification of domino effects outside the boundaries of a single industrial site, domino effects constitute an issue that needs to be specifically addressed in the management of industrial sites. Moreover, especially since 9/11, the possibility of domino effects has become important also from a security perspective, thus from the viewpoint of preventing and/or mitigating intentionally induced escalation events (e.g. by terrorists or by disgruntled employees). Presents Domino effects from a technological as well as a managerial (non-technological) perspective- holistic/multidisciplinary approach Covers Domino effects from a safety (non-intentional) as well as a security (intentional) perspective-guidelines for preventing accidents and actions to be taken Written for academics as well as industrialists (easy to understand, yet advanced science)-holistic overview of the topic from theoretical and practical aspects Provides State-of-the-art methodologies for domino effect assessment-easy to understand methods for assessment of domino effects Provides worked examples on key-methodologies-real life situations enabling the section of the most appropriate methodology Includes Glossary-clear and unambiguous definition of terms used throughout the text which avoids misunderstandings

Domino Effects in the Process Industries

The topic concerns the so-called 'domino effects' or accidents with escalation effects within the chemical industry. Domino effects can be defined in a number of ways. For a list of domino effect definitions, see Reniers' article in the Journal of Hazardous Materials 177 (2010). The most widely used definition is that of

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino Effects in the Process Industries discusses state-of-the-art theories, conceptual models, insights and practical issues surrounding large-scale knock-on accidents—so-called domino effects—in the chemical and process industries. The book treats such extremely low-frequency phenomena from a technological perspective, studying possible causes and introducing several approaches to assess and control

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Domino effects may cause more severe accident scenarios in the chemical and process industries. An introduction is given to the context and state of the art of technical and scientific knowledge concerning accident scenarios where domino effect(s) took place, as well as to European regulations on the subject. The

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Risk-based design has an important role in the inherent prevention of domino effect, limiting the possibility of escalation by both physical distances between units and introduction of robust safety barriers. In this chapter, the role of design in reducing domino hazard has been explored. Layout definition was identified as a

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

The assessment of hazards related to domino accidents is an important issue in the safety analysis of an industrial site. Several methodologies exist and different levels of detail may be used in the analysis. The present section provides a framework and a classification of the available techniques that may be

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

The analysis of domino escalation scenarios is a complex task. The use of advanced distributed parameter models may provide a significant contribution to domino effect escalation assessment. Nevertheless, this approach requires a detailed description of equipment geometry and the characterization of the primary scenarios leading to the escalation. This chapter

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Nowadays the application of decision support systems (DSSs) in process safety is more important than ever. The use of DSS for preventing domino effects is one of the diverse applications of these computer-automated toolkits. Different software packages were developed in recent years, each trying to manage domino risk by a

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Blast waves, fires and fragment projection are by far the most common causes of escalation leading to domino accidents. The present chapter deals with less-frequent and more controversial domino scenarios: domino events due to indirect escalation and external events. Indirect causes of escalation, even if not frequent, may be extremely

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Explosions produce pressure waves which expand in the atmosphere. When impacting industrial equipment, domino effects may be caused if the equipment content is flammable or toxic. A detailed analysis of these scenarios requires complex computational tecniques based on finite element analysis. Simplified methodologies have been developed in the past years

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

The first step in the assessment of domino accident scenarios is the definition of the basic elements of escalation resulting in a domino effect. In the present chapter, the fundamental elements of a domino accident are discussed. A generic and unambiguous definition for “domino effect” is provided, taking into consideration

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries  Fostering Innovative Approaches and Advancing the State of the art

Download or read online Domino Effects in the Process Industries Fostering Innovative Approaches and Advancing the State of the art written by Anonim, published by Unknown which was released on 2015. Get Domino Effects in the Process Industries Fostering Innovative Approaches and Advancing the State of the art Books now! Available

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Managing domino effects in an industrial area is not an easy task. It requires multidisciplinary knowledge and know-how, an adequate mindset, eye for detail and for the big picture, a short-term as well as a long-term vision, thorough collaboration efforts, a generalistic perspective with specialist knowledge, and so on. Different

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

Fragments projected by equipment failures are a relevant cause of escalation leading to domino accidents. The patterns underlying this escalation mechanism were revised in detail. The fundamental phenomena available to cope with the three main steps of the phenomena (fragment formation, fragment ejection and flight, and damage from fragment impact

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

The complexity of domino scenarios represented a considerable obstacle to the quantitative assessment of risk posed by escalation events. In the present chapter, the state of the art concerning quantitative approaches proposed for the assessment of risk caused by domino accidents is summarized. A procedure for the quantitative risk assessment

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Domino Effects in the Process Industries

The diverse historical surveys on accidents involving domino effect have been analyzed to identify their significance and their most important features. From these data, the importance of domino effect among all accidents in the process industry and in the transportation of hazardous materials has been highlighted. The characteristics of this

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